Next month the Supreme Court will consider an antitrust case that pits federalism against occupational freedom. Over the last decade, individuals and companies who are not practicing dentists have begun offering teeth whitening services. In North Carolina a state board has told them to desist. What makes the case interesting under antitrust law is that the substantial majority of the board is elected by dentists and dental hygienists—precisely the groups that stand to lose from this competition. The Federal Trade Commission challenged their action as a restraint of trade and the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals sustained its decision.